Get Cloud Director VM Inventory with Storage Info (KB#00097)

 Hello Guys,

Keep fighting with Corona and keep your spirit up. It will help 😊

I got this challenge in form of a request from my customer. He requested all VM's info including cpu, mem and disk size. Initially I thought what's a big deal in it but then when I actually started writing code, I had the feeling like "What the heck" LOL!

Guys who already dealt with it, might know my pain. I started browsing google and found that many people are asking same question and I found vmware community thread too was unanswered. After a extensive search and hard work, I could do it. Below is the code guys:


==========
Function Get-CIVMInventory {
$ppp = Read-host "enter the vm name"
$vms = Get-CIVM -Name $ppp
Foreach ($vm in $vms){
$ee = $vm.ExtensionData.GetVirtualHardwareSection().item | Where {$_.Description -like “Hard Disk”}
$ff = $ee.VirtualQuantity.value
foreach ($f in $ff){
Get-CIVM -Name $vm | Select @{N="Name";E={@($vm.Name)}}, CPUCount, MemoryGB, @{N="DiskSize(GB)";E={@($f/1024/1024/1024)}}
}
}
Get-CIVMInventory
}
=========

Above is for single VM, you might be having requests like you want to fetch for all VMs in your cloud director environment then please use below code:

========
$vms = Get-CIVM
$output = Foreach ($vm in $vms){
$ee = $vm.ExtensionData.GetVirtualHardwareSection().item | Where {$_.Description -like “Hard Disk”}
$ff = $ee.VirtualQuantity.value
foreach ($f in $ff){
Get-CIVM -Name $vm | Select @{N="Name";E={@($vm.Name)}}, CPUCount, MemoryGB, @{N="DiskSize(GB)";E={@($f/1024/1024/1024)}}
}
}
$output | Import-Csv C:\Temp\fra_vcd_vm_invent.csv
=========

It is tested and working for me. Give it a try and let me know if it doesn't work for you😊 I answered the VMware thread too.

Create/Update Metadata of Cloud Director Objects (KB#00096)

Overview

You can easily create/modify metadata for any Cloud Director object using GUI but it is a challenge if there is no option to modify or create metadata from GUI and according to your requirement. This is the issue with VMware Cloud Director 10.1.2. This version not only doesn't have this option from GUI but also existing metadata entries are not editable from GUI. This is the reason, I had to find some other way out.

As a solution, either you need to do it from APIs or from PowerShell. I will demonstrate both ways here. You may choose which sounds easy for you. Same method will be followed in future versions as well if VMware haven't plan to change the Metadata Format as they did for older versions of vCD. This is the reason that most of the articles on web don't give you exact information as those are outdated now.

Solution 1: From PowerCLI

=======
$vcd = Read-Host "Enter fqdn/IP here"
Connect-CIServer $vcd
#In below line, you need to specifiy the object whether it is VM, vAPP, Org or OrgvDC. Command will change accordingly. For example, for VM, you will use Get-CIVM. For Org, you will use Get-Org and so on...
$vapp = Get-CIVApp -Name testconsole
$metadata = $vapp.extensiondata.GetMetadata()
$metadata.MetadataEntry = New-Object VMware.VimAutomation.Cloud.Views.MetadataEntry
$metadata.MetadataEntry[0].Key = "vCnotes"
$metadata.MetadataEntry[0].TypedValue = New-Object VMware.VimAutomation.Cloud.Views.MetadataStringValue
$metadata.MetadataEntry[0].TypedValue.Value = "test"
$metadata.MetadataEntry[0].Domain = New-Object VMware.VimAutomation.Cloud.Views.MetadataDomainTag
$metadata.MetadataEntry[0].Domain.Visibility = "readonly"
$metadata.MetadataEntry[0].Domain.Value = "SYSTEM" $vapp.ExtensionData.CreateMetadata($metadata)
=======

Copy the above lines and change it according to your environment and run it. You need to modify the yellow highlighted value according to your environment.

Note that : 

1. To update existing entry, you can run above command by keeping key name same. It will update the existing keys.
2. If you are Tenant Administrator then you won't be able to see the private visible keys but still can modify using this commands.

Solution 2: From any API Tool : It is lengthy and complex one.

I will take sometime to update this post. Meanwhile, enjoy using Solution 1 ;)

For any doubt/error in powercli, feel free to comment.

Reset root account password without restarting esxi host (KB#00095)

Overiew

Generally, if you forgot root account password then you reboot the appliance and then enter grub menu by pressing key 'e' during the boot and then you put the keywords rw init=/bin/bash in the last of first line then you press F10 to save and continue for temp login with root account.

But what if you can't reboot esxi host and have to reset the root password as well. In other words, what if you want to reset root account password without rebooting it anytime.

Sounds interesting, isn't it?

Solution

I will update this post by next weekend. Stay tuned guys!!



Thank you

Check Free IP addresses in Network Pool in Cloud Director (KB#00094)

Overview

This is actually not a big deal when you can check this in cloud director GUI and you would see number of articles to explain this from GUI. But, if there is no option to check the IP address allocation from GUI then it would be far difficult for you if you only work with GUI. My customer reported me that he can't see the assigned or allocated IP addresses and had to ping each and every IP address to check whether its allocated or not. It is actually a headache.

Issue

Two issues were there

1. Checking IP allocation for external network is restricted to System Administrator. My customer was tenant administrator and wanted to check this which is not possible due to product design.
2. If you are System Administrator, you might not get any option to extract the list of IP addresses to store with you or use in excel for quick filter and highlight of free IP addresses etc..
3. Checked on VMware Cloud Director versin 10.1.2

Solution 

Credit goes to powershell here. I could create below script which easily could give you the results. Just copy below output and then paste it into powershell screen from where you can access your cloud director environment.

#

$vcd = Read-Host "Enter vCD url to connect"

Connect-CIServer $vcd

$network = Read-Host "Enter the name of network here"

$ExtNet = Get-ExternalNetwork -Name $network

$ExtNet.ExtensionData.Configuration.IpScopes.IpScope.allocatedipaddresses.IpAddress | Out-GridView

#

Below is sample out-


let's verify the sample output from GUI-


Let me know if you have any thought around it. 

Thank you.

 

Check and Modify Security Protocols in VMware Appliances(KB#00093)

Overview

It is just to centralize the configuration method of security protocols like TLS or SSL in all VMware appliances. VMware did a good job in documenting this process and I am just putting all in one view.  I will add the product in the list if I feel that it needs to be here.

For vCenter Server -

To check :

1. Connect with vCenter server appliance with SSH with its management IP address
2. Run below command#

#cd /usr/lib/vmware-vSphereTlsReconfigurator/VcTlsReconfigurator/
#./reconfigureVC scan

Below is the sample output : TLS Version is TLSv1.2. It means that TLSv1.2 is enabled and any other version is disabled. 


To update in vCenter version 6.5 and 6.7:

Managing TLS protocol configuration for vSphere 6.5/6.7 (2147469) (vmware.com)

To update in vCenter version 7.x

Enable or Disable TLS Versions on vCenter Server Systems (vmware.com)


For vCD or VMware Cloud Director

To check :

1. Login vCD or cloud director appliance
2. Run below command#

#cd /opt/vmware/vcloud-director/bin
#./cell-management-tool ssl -protocols -l

Below is the sample output :


To update:

Note : It need downtime and need to update on each cell individually. So please shutdown the vCD services first before doing this. Follow this article for this vCD | Upgrade from version 9.5 to 10.1.2 ~ My vCloud Notes (vcnotes.in)

#./cell-management-tool ssl-protocols -d SSLv3,SSLv2Hello

Follow this VMware article to update 


For vRealize Automation 

To check and update, just follow this article

For vRealize Log Insight

Good article by vendor.

For NSX for vSphere (NSX-V)

Please see this documentation.

For ESXI Host

Worth to check this page here.

For vROPS

Please click here to check this.

Kubernetes | Command Cheat Sheet(KB#00092)

Overview

Well yes, you are thinking right that I am learning Kubernetes so wanted to share some useful insights and will continue to share stuff on this. Below are some commands for daily operations while working with Kubernetes. I will keep on adding stuff here.

 

Command to Command
Check Minikube version $minikube version
Start Minikube cluster $minikube start
Check if Kubectl is installed $kubectl version
Check kubectl cluster info $kubectl cluster-info
Check kubectl node info $kubectl get node
, ,

PS | How to get HA restarted VM's Org and OrgvDC info with VM Name

Overview

You will see many blogs giving solution for fetching the VM names which are restarted by HA in event of esxi host failures using Get-VIEvent powercli command. But the extracted VM Name too is not in well format to use as it is. You have to use excel and text to column and then extract the VM Name etc. For me, I have vCD also so at the time of ESXi host failures and HA events, I not only need to fetch the VM Name but also Org and OrgvDC info to share it with my customer. It becomes more lengthy for me and I need to make it quick. So it is extended solution for such kind of scenario. Hope you will find it useful.

Let's see how I could do it using powershell.

Script

#Start here

Write-Host "This script will help you out to have VM name restarted by HA due to esxi host failuers" -ForegroundColor Yellow

Function Get-HAVM{
$Date=Get-Date
$HAVMrestartold=1
$raw = Get-VIEvent  -maxsamples 10000000 -Start ($Date).AddDays(-$HAVMrestartold) -type warning | Where {$_.FullFormattedMessage -match "restarted"} |select CreatedTime,FullFormattedMessage |sort CreatedTime -Descending
$raw.vm.name
Remove-Item -Path C:\Temp\vmlist.csv
$raw.vm.name | Out-File C:\Temp\vmlist.csv
}
Get-HAVM
$allvms = Get-Content -Path C:\Temp\vmlist.csv
$vms = Get-VM -Name $allvms
$myView = @()
foreach ($vm in $vms){
$Report = [PSCustomObject] @{
 VM_Name = $vm.Name
 Org_Name = $vm.Folder.Parent.Parent.Name
 OrgvDC_Name = $vm.Folder.Parent.Name
}
$MyView += $Report
}
$myView | Out-GridView

#End here

Any doubt? Comment box is yours :)

Let's give it more power

If you have smtp configured in your environment then simply you can mail it from the same script using Send-MailMessage command but for that you might have to do some tweak in above script. 

Hint is, You have to save final report. Change in the last line of above script like

$myView | Out-File C:\Temp\vmsrestartedbyHA.csv

then use below command

Send-MailMessage -From 'gautam.johar@vcnotes.in' -To 'my.reader@home.com', 'myreader2@home.com' -Subject 'HA Event is triggered and VM list is attached' -Body "Please find the attachment" -Attachments C:\Temp\vmsrestartedbyHA.csv -Priority High -DeliveryNotificationOption OnSuccess, OnFailure -SmtpServer 'smtp.vcnotes.in'

Change wherever applicable.

If you are good enough in PowerShell then you can have many ways to enhance the ideas. For me this is basic script which is working fine for me.

Side Note

I created this script to run perfectly in PowerShell ISE so run in that please or if you have any error in running it in simple powershell cli terminal then you might need to fix the visible errors.

Good Luck!









vRA | How to manually assign the unassigned shards

 Overview

In one of the vRA upgrade from 7.4 to 7.6, I faced this issue post upgrade. All went well except below error on VAMI page of both vRA appliances (as I had two nodes). If you have more and if you stuck with this error then you will see this error on all the nodes. 

================

Elasticsearch validation failed:

status: red
number_of_nodes: 2
unassigned_shards: 4
number_of_pending_tasks: 0
number_of_in_flight_fetch: 0
timed_out: False
active_primary_shards: 113
cluster_name: horizon
relocating_shards: 0
active_shards: 226
initializing_shards: 0
number_of_data_nodes: 2
delayed_unassigned_shards: 0

=================

If you read above error then you will understand that there are 4 unassigned shards which were not automatically assigned to any of the available vra node. 

Cause 

It happens if and when DB sync between primary and slave vra nodes are not good. When primary node was not having updated data but slave nodes were running with some additional data. Total break between Master and Replica DB replication. In my case also before upgrading there were many issues with DB.

If you recover the cluster state even then these shards might not assign automatically and give above alert. Now you have to assign the unassigned shards manually. Let's see the process.

Resolution

1. Check the state from Master node CLI with below command

#curl http://localhost:9200/_cluster/health?pretty=true

You will have this error in output

{
  "cluster_name" : "horizon",
  "status" : "red",
  "timed_out" : false,
  "number_of_nodes" : 2,
  "number_of_data_nodes" : 2,
  "active_primary_shards" : 113,
  "active_shards" : 226,
  "relocating_shards" : 0,
  "initializing_shards" : 0,
  "unassigned_shards" : 4,
  "delayed_unassigned_shards" : 0,
  "number_of_pending_tasks" : 0,
  "number_of_in_flight_fetch" : 0
}

2. Check the cluster information with below command

#curl -s -XGET http://localhost:9200/_cat/nodes

You will have similar output

master.mylab.local 172.25.3.199 8   d * Dreadknight
replica.mylab.local 172.25.3.200 8   d m Masque

3. Search for unassigned shards

#curl -XGET 'http://localhost:9200/_cat/shards' | grep UNAS

You will see similar output as below

 % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100 15870  100 15870    0     0   484k      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--  484k
v3_2020-10-02  4 p UNASSIGNED
v3_2020-10-02  4 r UNASSIGNED
v3_2020-10-02  2 p UNASSIGNED
v3_2020-10-02  2 r UNASSIGNED

4. Re-assigned these using the following command, where index = v3_2020-10-02, and shards to be re-assigned are '2' and '4', while running on the master node - 'Dreadknight. Change your command according to your environment. for example, value after index will be changed, value after shard, after node will  be changed. Other infos will be same.


curl -XPOST 'localhost:9200/_cluster/reroute' -d '{"commands":[{"allocate":{"index":"v3_2020-10-02","shard":2,"node":"Dreadknight","allow_primary":"true"}}]}'

and

curl -XPOST 'localhost:9200/_cluster/reroute' -d '{"commands":[{"allocate":{"index":"v3_2020-10-02","shard":4,"node":"Dreadknight","allow_primary":"true"}}]}'

That's it. Now shards have been assigned or allocated automatically manually.

Log out all the nodes VAMI and log in back. You will not see any such error.


Miscellaneous Notes

This is dynamic post and I will keep on adding points in here. I generally add small but useful things here which is not worthy to create long post.

 


How to Explanation
transfer the tech-support bundle to FTP on Arista Router copy flash:/EOS-4.18.2F.swi ftp:/user:password@192.168.10.15/EOS-4.18.2F.swi
user = username of ftp server account
password = password of ftp server account
192.168.10.15 = IP address of ftp server
EOS-4.18.2F.swi = tech-support bundle file name
Encrypt a PowerShell script https://drive.google.com/open?id=19Bvik1FcSTC57eJ0CZPE4D-8hnQfyCi-
Reboot Windows with PowerShell command powershell.exe -encodedCommand cwBoAHUAdABkAG8AdwBuACAALQByACAALwB0ACAAMAAxACAA
To create a digital clock Download and run these PS script to create the clock on your PC.
EST Clock | CST Clock | IST Clock
Do few things in Linux 1. Check Kernal Version in Linux - Rpm -qa | grep -I kernel
2. Change IP on an interface - ifconfig eth1 192.168.2.2 netmask 255.255.255.0
3. To set or change DG of any VM - route add default gw 192.168.2.1
4. File location to change the IP - vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
5. To Search specific text in linux server -
grep -rnw '/path/to/somewhere/' -e 'pattern'
How to ping with the MTU value ping www.yahoo.com -f -l 1492
Add Network Components in vRNI Check this article
How to encode and decode Base64 script Check this here
Ping an entire subnet in Windows I have documented it here
Some Useful ESXi Commands Check speed and other info of HBA card - esxcli storage san fc list
vCloud API Guide for NSX Here is the vendor page for pdf
To create static routes in multiple esxi hosts $esx = Get-VMHost -Name esxihost_Name
$esxcli = Get-EsxCli -VMHost $esx -V2
$parms = @{
network = '192.168.102.0/24'
gateway = '192.168.3.1'
}
$esxcli.network.ip.route.ipv4.add.Invoke($parms)
$esxcli.network.ip.route.ipv4.list.Invoke()
Send mail to any mail account using PS Download the powershell script from Google Drive. Click here
How to delete any iso file in all datastores which is older than 15 days foreach($ds in Get-datastore){
New-PSDrive -Name GJ -PSProvider VimDatastore -Root '/' -Datastore $ds > $null
Get-Childitem -Path GJ:\ -Recurse -Include *.iso | Remove-Item -Confirm:$true | Where ((Get-date).AddDays(-15))
#This will search each and every folder in your datastore and show you the file to delete it.
Remove-PSDrive -Name GJ -Confirm:$false}
Replace false to true in command (Remove-Item -Confirm:$false to Remove-Item -Confirm:$true)if you want to check and delete each file one by one
How to edit Login Banner in Vmware Cloud Director Appliance 1. Create or edit a file in /etc/login.warn and put your message in here.
2. Edit /etc/sshd/sshd_config file and change the line from #Banner none to #Banner /etc/login.warn
,

PS | To extract DRS rules with VM names

Hi Guys,

This is not a big thing but still I wanted to document it for my own reference. I got a request like which VMs are in which DRS rules so I got below script.

#Start here

$VC = Read-host "Enter the FQDN\IP of vCenter Server"

Connect-VIServer $VC
$DRSRules = Get-Cluster | Get-DrsRule
$Results = ForEach ($DRSRule in $DRSRules)
     {
    "" | Select-Object -Property @{N="Cluster";E={(Get-View- Id $DRSRule.Cluster.Id).Name}},
    @{N="Name";E={$DRSRule.Name}},
    @{N="Enabled";E={$DRSRule.Enabled}},
    @{N="DRS Type";E={$DRSRule.KeepTogether}},
    @{N="VMs";E={$VMIds=$DRSRule.VMIds -split ","
     $VMs = ForEach ($VMId in $VMIds)
        {
        (Get-View -Id $VMId).Name
        }
      $VMs -join ","}}
     }
$Results | out-gridview

#End here

Another window will open and copy entire output into excel if you want.

Cheers!


,

vCD | How to disable auto-discovery for particular OrgvDC

Overview
How to connect
How to check existing setting
How to update existing setting

Overview

I am creating a post on the subject because there is no clear cut article on this on web or might be I couldn't find straightforward process to do this. Basically, in vCD GUI there is option to disable or enable the auto-discovery for entire vCD system. On org level you cannot disable or enable auto-discovery but you can override this setting on OrgvDC level but with the help of Admin APIs. Hope you know about APIs but what is Admin APIs. This will automatically be answered in this post. Read this post carefully and I hope you will understand this. To know more about auto-discovery, you can check out this post by Tom Fojta.

How to connect

You cannot even check the auto-discovery status for OrgvDC from GUI. You need to use the API. I have already covered this in my previous posts to connect vCD in API tool. Have a look here

How to check existing setting

Once you are connected then Use below api query to extract your Org detail

1. GET https://vcloud_ip_or_fqdn/api/org 

Now, copy entire output and paste into notepad++ or any other text editor you want. Search for Org name where your orgvDC was created. Search in the notepad++ file only. You will get href link from there. Copy that link and paste it in API tool and send GET command. Example is shown below

2. GET https://vcloud_ip_or_fqdn/api/org/a038859f-bf22-4d64-b6dc-e1cb8fdf2fbc"

Now, you will get OrgvDCs list in this org. Copy entire output again and paste it into notepad++ again. Search target OrgvDC name and copy the href for that OrgvDC. Below is the example-

https://vcloud_ip_or_fqdn/api/vdc/a038859f-bf22-4d64-b6dc-e1cb8fdf2fbc"

In order to check the value you need to modify the above href value little bit. Check below

https://vcloud_ip_or_fqdn/api/admin/vdc/a038859f-bf22-4d64-b6dc-e1cb8fdf2fbc"

Hope you could notice the difference in above lines. Now create and send GET command as below

3. GET https://vcloud_ip_or_fqdn/api/admin/vdc/a038859f-bf22-4d64-b6dc-e1cb8fdf2fbc"

Note that if you run the GET command with adding "admin" then only you will get the auto-discovery option in output. Below is the example command and output with "admin" keyword-




Note that, if any OrgvDC output is not having this line that's mean it is following the vDC global level setting and to override this value by adding this line here. I will explain how.

Flase means VM auto-discovery is disabled and true means it is enabled. I explained you the process to get the value to Vm Auto Discovery status for OrgvDC. Now let's how to change this value.


How to update existing setting

To update this value from false to true or true to false or even enter the whole line here, you need to follow below steps

1. From above steps 3, you got orgvDC href value where you send GET query to get the auto vm discovery states, now you replace GET command with PUT command


2. Now, in the output for OrgvDC which you copied into notepad++,  If vmDiscoveryEnabled is false and you want to make it true then change the keyword from false to true and vice-versa. 

3. Copy entire output again after changing the value and paste it in the BODY, select RAW and select xml as shown in my previous post.

4. You will not click on send button now, you need to add one more header here along with other placed headers. Header info is given here and practical use below. For this reason only, I had to create an entire post. This is not clearly mentioned on any article on web so now you have one.


In case, you want to use JSON then you can use that too but make sure then JSON must be selected in body where you pasted the data from notepad++.

Once you put the content-type then make sure you have entered the right vDC href and selected operations in PUT and not GET. 

Now hit the send button.

You will get message "202 Accepted" if all went good.